Fact Sheets

Fact Sheets and PDF Downloads

Welcome to Essex Turbos Fact Sheets Page.
This page contains a number of downloadable documents prepared by Essex Turbo ranging from advice sheets relating to turbo issues to information relevant to Essex Turbo as a company.

BMW Engine Breather Assembly Issue

Most common reason for failure is a blocked breather (also referenced as an oil separator).

Why?

One of the most common reasons for this is the breather assembly on top of the rocker / cam cover is not changed regularly enough so gets congested / blocked and causes the engine to breathe heavily.

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This causes increased crank case pressure which creates an increase in pressure in the sump pushing the oil back up the oil return pipe. This effectively blocks the oil return pipe so the oil entering the turbo through the oil feed pipe cannot escape out the oil drain pipe. As it backs up it is forced out the turbo sideways past the piston rings (seals) into both the turbine housing (exhaust housing) and compressor housing (Air intake housing).


The leaking of oil into the exhaust housing can cause a smoking issue. Also over a period of time the leaking oil can also build up around the variable vanes assembly interfering with their operation.
Turbo 4
Turbo 4


As the build up of oil carbonises around the vanes they can become what people refer to as ‘sticky’ vanes which can cause them to operate erratically. The driver may experience issues with the turbo boosting and the vehicle smoking. In some cases the outcome is a destroyed turbo.

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Electronic Actuator

Over the last few years the turbocharger market place has seen major changes to the design of turbos for passenger vehicles with the introduction of more and more turbos

using electronic actuators.

The electronic actuator incorporates electrical circuits which pass pulses / signals to a motor that drives an arm linked into the variable vanes. There are preset stop positions within the actuator which control the boosting of the turbo. These will be slightly different for each turbo which makes each actuator turbo specific.

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Remanufacturing electronic turbos

An off the shelf solution is not currently available to the market place to test and setup the electronic actuator.
Therefore in the majority of cases rebuilding this next generation of electronically controlled turbos cannot be
easily achieved. The result is that most companies can only offer to replace the faulty turbo with a NEW turbo.

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Here at Essex Turbo we don’t have to offer you a NEW replacement turbo as we have developed test equipment that allows us to check the electronic actuators for error codes. The equipment allows us to clear and reset the electronic actuator on the turbo therefore allowing us to rebuild the turbo in the knowledge that the complete turbo has been checked and setup correctly.


Frequently Asked Question (FAQ)

We get asked regularly if the electronic actuator is available as a separate component because the diagnostic equipment has identified a fault with the actuator. (Ref: Error Codes present).
Unfortunately the answer to that is ‘no’ on two counts:

  • Having investigated this request we have been told that the electronic actuator was designed to be set up on the turbo and never designed as a separate ‘plug and play’ component.
  • Also we have found from our experience that the vast majority of error codes are generated as a result of carbon build-up around the variable vanes found inside the turbochargers’ exhaust housing. Sooty exhaust gases create a carbon build-up which restricts the full range of movement of the variable vanes.

So what appears to be an electronic actuator only problem does in fact, with further investigation on the turbo, turn out to be a variable vane issue as well.



Common reasons for failure

The vehicle experiences power (boost) issues which can show up on a garage’s diagnostic machine as error codes. It is generally assumed by the user as an electronic actuator problem only, and that the turbo is mechanically sound. The next question to ask would be ‘what might have caused the error codes to be generated in the first place?

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Identifying Your Turbo Part Number

When making an enquiry for a replacement turbocharger for your vehicle you will need to know the part number of the turbocharger currently fitted to the vehicle. Without this information a firm price and availability is not possible.

There are two numbers that will normally identify a turbocharger. The OEM Part Number (Original Equipment Manufacturer Number) or the Turbo Manufacturer Part Number. To clarify O.E.M. is the Vehicle Manufacturer such as Audi, BMW, Ford etc.

If the turbocharger is still fitted to the vehicle then the best approach is to obtain the OEM number from the local main dealer parts department by asking for their price to supply. You will need to give them either your Vehicle Registration Number or Vehicle chassis number. However you may find that the main dealers will give you a price but maybe reluctant to give you the OEM number for use elsewhere and only offer their internal part number. This may still be OK to cross reference.

The alternative to this is to try to retrieve the numbers from the actual turbocharger identification plate. This may mean trying to read them while the turbocharger is still fitted to the vehicle which is not ideal, so you may have to wait until the turbocharger has been removed from the vehicle.

1 O.E.M. Part Number (Vehicle Manufacturer = O.E.M)

The OEM Number is normally issued by the vehicle manufacturers such as: Audi, BMW, Ford, Mercedes, Toyota, VW etc and can also be found actually etched on the identification plate on the turbocharger.

Below are just a few examples of what vehicle manufacturer’s OEM part numbers look like, however bear in mind that vehicle manufacturer’s are not typically exclusive to one turbocharger manufacturer for their range of vehicles. For instance Audi fit both Garrett and BorgWarner KKK turbochargers to their engines while BMW use both Garrett and Mitsubishi turbochargers across their range of vehicles:

Vehicle Type OEM Part Number Turbo Manufacturer
Range Rover Sport 2.7L D 4H2Q 6K682 CK BorgWarner KKK
BMW 320d 2.0L D 11657795499 or 7795499K10 Mitsubishi Turbo
Ford Mondeo 2.0TDCi 4S7Q6K682EN Garrett Turbo
Mercedes Vito 2.2L D A6460960199 IHI Turbo
VW Golf 1.9TDi 038253014G BorgWarner KKK
Toyota Luceda 2.0D 17201-64030 or 64030 Toyota Turbo



2 Turbo Manufacturer Part Number

The other part number used to identify your turbocharger is issued by the actual turbo manufacturer. This can be found actually etched on the same identification plate as the OEM number on the turbocharger. The most common turbo manufacturers for passenger vehicles include: Garrett, BorgWarner KKK, Mitsubishi, IHI and Toyota.

GarrettBorg Warner
IHIMitsubishi
Toyota

Examples of how the part number would look for the turbo manufacturers are as follows:

Vehicle Type Turbo Manufacturer Part Number Turbo Manufacturer
Range Rover Sport 2.7L D 53049700069 or K04-69 BorgWarner KKK Turbo
BMW 320d 2.0L D 49135-05671 Mitsubishi Turbo
Ford Mondeo 2.0TDCi 728680-5015s Garrett Turbo
Mercedes Vito 2.2L D VV14 or VF40A132 IHI Turbo
VW Golf 1.9TDi BV39A-0022 or 5439-970-0022 BorgWarner KKK Turbo
Toyota Luceda 2.0D 64030 Toyota Turbo

Here are some examples of where the part numbers can be found physically on the turbocharger. The numbers are frequently hard to distinguish so may need the area cleaning. It is very important not to use a heavy abrasive as this may result in the number becoming illegible or worst remove the numbers completely. It’s better to use something like brake cleaner and scotch bright.

Key
O O.E.M. Number (Original Equipment Manufacturer Number)
O Turbo Manufacturer Part Number

turbo-01
This BorgWarner KKK turbocharger typically fitted to vehicles with 2.7L D Land Rover engines such as a Range Rover Sport These turbochargers normally have a pot riveted badge on the Air intake side of the turbocharger. The OEM number on this turbocharger is:4H2Q 6K682 CK and the turbo manufacturer’s part number is 53049700069

turbo-02

turbo-03
This Mitsubishi turbocharger is typically fitted to a BMW 320d 2.0L D. These turbochargers normally have numbers etched on a flattened area on the Air intake side of the turbocharger. The OEM number on this turbocharger is: 7795499K10 and the turbo manufacturer’s part number is 49135-05671. From our experience BMW’s also fit turbochargers manufactured by Garrett to some of their models.

turbo-04

turbo-05
This Garrett Turbocharger is typically fitted to Ford 1.8L D Engines. These turbochargers normally have numbers etched on a flattened area on the Air intake side of the turbocharger. The OEM number on this turbocharger is:
7G9Q-6K682-BD and the turbo manufacturer’s part number: 763647-21.

turbo-06

turbo-07
This IHI Turbocharger is typically fitted to a Mercedes Vito 2.2L D. These turbochargers normally have numbers etched on a flattened area on the Air intake side of the turbocharger. The OEM number on this turbocharger is:
A6460960199 and the turbo manufacturer’s part number is VV14.

turbo8

turbo-09
This BorgWarner KKK turbocharger is typically fitted to vehicles with 1.9TDi VW Engine such as VW Golf. These turbochargers normally have a pot riveted badge on the Air intake side of the turbocharger. The OEM number on this turbocharger is:038253014G and the turbo manufacturer’s part number is BV39A-0022.

turbo-10

turbo-11
This Turbocharger is manufactured by Toyota and is fitted to their engines only. This style of turbocharger typically only has one identification number which can be found on the lip of the exhaust housing of the turbocharger. Because the turbocharger is Toyota produced the OEM and turbo manufacturer part number is typically the same:64030 / 64030.

turbo-12

turbo-13
This Garrett Turbocharger is manufactured for Toyota. It is typically fitted to a range of Toyota 2.0L D engines including the D4-D range on the Avensis, Estima, Previa and RAV 4. These turbochargers normally have numbers etched on a flattened area on the Air intake side of the turbocharger. The OEM number on this turbocharger is:17201-27030 and the turbo manufacturer’s part number is 721164-9.

turbo-14

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Motorsport


Our Pedigree:
Essex Turbo were involved in the production and development of Motorsport turbo’s for many years and with the companies origins dating back to the early 1980’s. The owner Mick Ireland had his first taste of the turbo industry when he worked for a sub-contractor of Brian Hart engines who were supplying the engine package for the turbocharged Toleman Hart Formula One cars in the 1980’s.

Experience:
With the knowledge and experience gained from working in this prestigious arena Mick started production on uprated components for the Motorsport industry and in particular the group ‘B’ RS200 & RS500’s which were a dominant force in the race and rally cross scene of the 1980’s.

Progression:
Following this period Mick formed M.I.E Turbo with the purpose to service purely Motorsport turbo’s. This opened the door to many interesting and rewarding projects including Garrett’s R & D machining as well as Ford Motorsport’s ‘Recce’ turbo program for the ‘Works’ Escort Cosworth’s of the time. Whilst the company continued to work with the Escort Cosworth it recognised a shift in the tide and started to turn its attention towards the fast developing Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution range.

Domination:
It was here that the company had its biggest success to date with the in-house design and manufacture of its ball bearing conversion for the Mitsubishi Lancer Evo cars. The unit was in production from 2000 and went from strength to strength with hundreds of units being sold worldwide to many of the world’s top privateer teams. It became a recognised upgrade for many competitors.

Past Clients:
The company had a prestigious worldwide client database and its turbochargers have enjoyed many race wins in every aspect of Motorsport including:



WRC – World Rally Championship
Network Q / RAC Rally
European Rally Championship
Le-Mans
Asian GT Car Series
Pikes Peak
To name a few…

Essex Turbo is no longer involved in the Motorsport market place. We have really enjoyed our time working with Motorsport applications, whether it was a bespoke unit or a tried and tested component. We’d like to thank all our past clients for choosing us. We wish you every success for the future.

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VNT Technology


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The introduction of VNT™ (Variable Nozzle Turbine) turbochargers in 1989, and its evolution throughout the 1990s and into the 21st Century, makes the technology the most successful engine-boosting concept the world has ever seen. Thesystem makes it easier for car manufacturers to fully deploy the torque and fuel economy advantages of direct injection diesel engines.

The technology involves the use of a turbine housing that can change its internal configuration to adapt to variations in the engine’s air boost requirements. VNT™ enables the turbocharger to supply greater engine boost at lower speeds, yet match the performance of a larger turbo at higher speeds. VNT™ turbochargers also help to control the emission of NOx from diesel-powered vehicles by introducing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) into the engine. (source: www.honeywell.com)

It has always been the view of turbocharger manufactures that VNT™ controlled turbos can not be rebuilt or remanufactured because a product to set-up the variable vanes is not available to the market place. Failure to set the variable vanes correctly can result in turbo boosting, fuel consumption and emission issues?

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Air Flow Rig

We agree there is not an ‘off the shelf’ product available; however we have successfully developed the technology to overcome this problem.
We have developed an Air Flow Rig that reproduces the exact conditions required to flow exhaust gases across the variable vanes inside all the remanufactured turbos we produce. By adjusting the variable vanes system we can set the flow rate to the correct figure for the turbo.

Common issue with VNT™ controlled turbos
The vehicle can experience a problem with a lack of power (boost). Sometimes the engine management light appears and the car can drop into ‘limp mode’. A common phrase used when describing this problem is ‘the turbo has sticky vanes’.

What causes this?
In the majority of cases the vehicle is running rich (fuelling issue) and the exhaust gases become very sooty. The sooty exhaust gases pass through the turbo and around the variable vanes leaving carbon deposits. Over a period of time these carbon deposits build-up and can impair the full range of movement of the variable vanes which can result in the power (boosting) issues experienced by the user. It can appear as a ‘turbo over boost pressure’ fault code on diagnostic equipment.

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Frequently Asked Question (FAQ)
A popular question we are asked is ‘can you just clean away the carbon build-up from the variable vanes to free them’?
Unfortunately the answer to that is ‘no’ on two counts:

  • Once cleaned you need to make sure the variable vanes are calibrated correctly otherwise you run the risk of suffering further turbo boosting and/or fuelling issues.
  • From our experience it is really important to identify what might be causing the sooty exhaust gases in the first place as the vast majority of turbo problems are created by issues external to the turbo such as a faulty Mass Air Flow Meter (MAM) or EGR valve.

So what on the face of it appears to be a turbo only problem, can with further investigation on the vehicle, turn out to be faulty controlling components affecting the running.

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VSR Balancing Machine

A VSR balancing machine is an essential piece of equipment for anyone involved.

in the re-manufacture or rebuild of customer turbos.

Why balance the core assembly of a turbo?

The operating speed of a passenger vehicle turbo can reach speeds as high as 200,000rpm so if the rebuilt core from the turbo is not balanced it runs the risk of rotating off its central axis impacting the turbine or compressor housings.

Turbo 1
Turbo 2


The outcome could result in total devastation to all moving parts and housings. This would then allow the lubricating oil being supplied to the central core of the turbo to escape into the exhaust system and intercooler rather than leaving the turbo as it should via the oil return pipe to the engine sump.


That is why all the turbos prepared by Essex Turbo are balanced on an appropriate machine.


As the build up of oil carbonises around the vanes they can become what people refer to as ‘sticky’ vanes which can cause them to operate erratically. The driver may experience issues with the turbo boosting and the vehicle smoking. In some cases the outcome is a destroyed turbo.

Download PDF Factsheet